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James Gentry
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This is very important work and I'm so excited by your project! Curious if you could expand a little bit on what the next steps/future applications might be after the conclusion of your P3 project.

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Hatoufi

Thank you so much for reviewing our project. I appreciate you taking the time to comment on our research.

Our next step will be determined based on the results of this step. We plan to expand our experiments and goals in the next step by following several approaches.

Initially, we will expand the current model by including groundwater interactions. To mimic groundwater upwelling, we plan to diffuse water from underneath the sediment to the system. Bioturbation will also be incorporated by adding benthic organisms and clean sediment to the top of each cap. The freshwater deposit-feeding oligochaete "Ilyodrilus templetoni" culture will be incorporated into this microcosm to promote the colonization of the surface sediments. This organism provides rapid mixing and bioturbation.

Three PFAS compounds (PFOA, PFOS, and PFBS) were spiked into the collected clean sediment in this step. By increasing the number of PFAS in experiments to around 20, we plan to develop our analytical methods. Additionally, the team will collect contaminated sediments from an actual field in Milwaukee Harbor and the City of Milwaukee for the next step. Therefore, we plan to study field-contaminated materials.

Upon completing the next phase, the student team will use traditional economic analyses to analyze the impact of sorbent-amended caps in real contaminated areas while considering the political feasibility of implementing these standards, given the polarized political climate surrounding environmental justice in the Chicago area.

Finally, our student team will gather additional information on the current policy landscape for PFAS-contaminated areas and attempt to provide input for science-based regulations, and will perform a preliminary design of a contaminated site.

I hope this explanation was helpful. Please do not hesitate to let us know your further comments, suggestions, and ideas.

Sincerely,
Hossein Atoufi.